Ruling on Wiping Over other than Khuffayn (Leather Socks)

20/03/2009

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Almost everyone who knows the basic fiqh of Tahaarah knows the permissibility of wiping over ones khuffayn or the two leather socks. But then one might ask, “What about wiping over normal socks, is it permissible of not?” Then to answer this question, we first understand what the ulamaa’ have described khuff and jawraab as.

Imām ash-Shawkānī رحمه الله explains in his famous commentary, Nail al-Awṭār:

“The khuff is the leather sock that covers the ankle bones.”

This is in accordance with what has been mentioned in classical Arabic dictionaries. Two of the best-known and well-respected classical Arabic dictionaries, Tahdhīb al-Lughah and al-Qāmūs al-Muḥīṭ, describe the khuff as:

“That which is made from thin leather which is worn over the foot.”

The ruling on it is clear to everyone which is; that it is permitted to wipe over them thus I shall not be mentioning any proofs for it.

Shaykh Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ ibn ʿUthaymīn رحمه الله explains the meanings of both khuff and jawraab in Fatāwā Fī l-Masḥ ʿAlā l-Khuffayn:

“The meaning of khuff is that which is worn on the foot being made of leather and that which is like it. The meaning of jawraab is that which is worn on the foot being made of cotton and that which is like it; it is what is referred to commonly as shurrāb.”

The famous linguist Abū Bakr ibn al-ʿArabī رحمه الله said:

Jawraab means a thin cover for the feet made of wool, worn to keep the feet warm.”

Regarding the permissibility of wiping over the jawaarabayn, this is an issue that mandates some discussion. It would seem that all of the ‘ulamaa’ permitted wiping over the jawaarabayn , however they disagreed in regards to the conditions. These conditions will be discussed later, as the opinions of all the four well-known madhahib and other ulamaa’ in regards to the permissibility are now mentioned:


The Ḥanafī Opinion: According to all the classic works of fiqh of the Aḥnāf, wiping over the jawaarabayn is permissible.

Imām al-Kasānī رحمه الله states that wiping over the jawaarabayn is not permissible according to Imām Abū Ḥanīfah رحمه الله; while it is permissible according to Imām Abū Yūsuf and Imām Muḥammad ash-Shaibānī رحمهما الله. Later he mentions that it is narrated that Imām Abū Ḥanīfah رحمه الله changed his opinion during his last days and allowed wiping over the jawaarabayn

This is in-fact a strong narration as it was recorded by Imām at-Tirmidhī رحمه الله, who said:

“I heard Ṣāliḥ ibn Muḥammad رحمه الله say that he heard from Abū Muqattil as-Samarqandī رحمه الله, who said that he visited Abū Ḥanīfah رحمه الله while he was in the illness from which he died. He called for water to be brought; he made wudhu’ while he was wearing jawaarabayn , and he wiped over them. He said: “I have done today something that I forbid before. I wiped over the jawaarabayn and they do not have leather soles.””

This is further clarified by the Ḥanafī alim, Ibn ʿĀbidīn رحمه الله:

“It is related concerning him, Abū Ḥanīfah رحمه الله, that he returned to their position (meaning the position of his students Abū Yūsuf and Muḥammad ash-Shaibānī رحمهما الله, and the fatwā is upon this.”

Hence allowing one to wipe over the jawaarabayn was the final opinion of Imām Abū Ḥanīfah رحمه الله as well as the opinion of both of his major students. According to the Ḥanafī muftī Ibn ʿĀbidīn رحمه الله, this is the most accepted opinion of the Ḥanafī madhhab

Mālikī Opinion: According to Imām Ibn al-Qāsim’s رحمه الله al-Mudauwanah, a classical work of فقه of the Mālikīyah, wiping over the jawaarabayn is permissible

Shāfiʿī Opinion: According to Imām an-Nawawī’s رحمه الله al-Majmūʿ, wiping over the jawaarabayn is permissible and that this is the most accepted position of the Shawāfiʿ; he went as far as to say that if the jawaarabayn were made out of glass while it being possible to walk in them, it would be permissible to wipe over them.

Ḥanbalī Opinion: Wiping over the jawaarabayn is permissible and is clearly the established, well-known, most accepted position of the Ḥanabilah.


The famous Ḥanbalī jurist Imām al-Khiraqī رحمه الله, writes in his Mukhtaṣar:

“Nothing can be wiped over except the خف and what serves the same purpose: like the maqṭūʿān (short leather socks) that come above the ankles and likewise the jawraabayn that are thick and do not fall down when they are walked in.”

Imām Bahā’ ad-Dīn al-Maqdisī رحمه الله explains that it is not necessary that they be made of leather. He quotes Imām Aḥmad رحمه الله in Al-ʿUddah Sharḥ al-ʿUmdah to have said:

Wiping over the jawraabayn is related from seven or eight of the صحابة رضي الله عنهم of Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم

Hence we see the ijmaa’of all four of the well-known madhahib on this issue. As for the proof, then he hadith in Sunan at-Tirmidhī:

Al-Mughīrah ibn Shuʿbah (may لله be pleased with him) reported that the Rasul Allah (SAWS): “made wudhu’and wiped over his jawraabayn and naʿlain (sandals).”

Imām at-Tirmidhī رحمه الله said in regards to this hadith:

“It is hasan sahih , and this is the position of more than one of the people of knowledge; and it is adopted by Sufyān ath-Thaurī, Ibn al-Mubārak, ash-Shāfiʿī, Aḥmad, and Isḥāq رحمهم الله, who all said: “One may wipe over the jawraabayn even if not wearing sandals, provided they are thick.”

Other Mauqūf ahadith reporting wiping over the jawraabayn are narrated from the following list of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم:

(1) ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib

(2) Ibn Masʿūd

(3) al-Barā’ ibn ʿĀzib

(4) Anas ibn Mālik

(5) Abū Umāmah

(6) Sahl ibn Saʿd

(7)ʿAmr ibn Ḥuraith

(8) ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb

(9) Ibn ʿAbbās

Imām ash-Shaukānī رحمه الله has related these in Nail al-Awṭār.


Imām Ibn Saiyid an-Nās رحمه الله continues the list in his Sharḥ al-Tirmidhi:

(10) ʿAbd لله (ʿAbdullāh) ibn ʿUmar

(11) Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqāṣ

(12) Abū Masʿūd al-Badrī

(13) ʿUqbah ibn ʿUmar

Yaḥyā al-Bakkā’ رحمه الله narrates that he heard Ibn ʿUmar (may لله be pleased with him) saying:

Wiping over the jawraabayn is like wiping over the khuffayn.”

Ibn Ḥazm رحمه الله said in Al-Muḥallah:

“Wiping over anything that is worn on the feet – of things that are جائز to be worn and which come up above the ankles – is Sunnah ; whether they are khuffayn made of leather, felt, or wood; or if they are jawraabayn made of linen, wool, cotton, camel hair, or goat hair – whether leather is worn over them or not, or whether they are overshoes or slippers worn over slippers or socks worn over socks.”

Ibn al-Mundhir رحمه الله made a very valuable point when he said:

“Wiping over the jawraabayn is narrated from nine different Sahabah رضي الله عنهم, and there was none known to oppose them.”

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5 Responses to “Ruling on Wiping Over other than Khuffayn (Leather Socks)”

  1. sumoodan Says:

    Assalamu ‘alayka warahmatullahi wabarakatuhu akhi

    Jazakallahu khairan for a great post. I was wondering if you are also going to mention the conditions associated with the permissibility of wiping over jawraab?

    • Abu Dahdah Says:

      بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

      و عليكَ السلام و رحمة الله و بركاته

      Wa Iyyaka

      Yes, insha’Allah this weekend I shall and if I don’t then remind me. JazakAllah

  2. Abu Isa Says:

    Jazakalah khair 🙂


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